Tatwa Bodham - 6. Jagat Srushti Kramam Mar 16, 2014 8:07:04 GMT 5.5
Post by Amritha Varshini on Mar 16, 2014 8:07:04 GMT 5.5
TATWA BODHAM - SRI ADHI SHANKARACHARYA (Commentary by Sri P.K. Venkatachalam)
6. JAGAT SRUSHTI KRAMAM
So far through the Nethi Nethi method and acceptance method, Aatma (Jeevan) has been explained. Jeevan as part of Brahman is proved. Next question: What is the nature of this world, which is full of things (sense objects) surrounding us, is taken up. What is the connection between us and the world? How this world has appeared? What is the nature and process of evolution of the world?
ATha Chathurvisathi Thathvothpatthi Prakaaram Vakshyaama:
Let us discuss the origin of Twenty-four principles.
Brahmaasrayaa Sathwa Rajas Tamo Gunaathmikaa Maayaa Asthi - Maaya, in the form of Satwa, Rajas Tamo Guna, exists purely dependent on Brahman.
The word Brahman has come from the root "Bruh", meaning "growth". Also Brahman denotes "BIG". This Brahman is not bound by any measurement, time, place etc. and is apart from the creations of the Mind. This is the cause of creation of World. The world (Jagat), filled with sense objects, being bound by the changes of time, place etc., is going through changes depending on time, place etc. How this world, bound by the border or measurement, has arisen from the unbound Brahman? How can a thing, which is not bound by the border etc., be bound by the border? How can the One which is not having changes, goes on changing? The ever changing World should be different from the never changing Brahman. Really these questions are puzzles. Let us see. Place, time, cause and effect etc. are the medium (like mirror), projecting the Brahman as the world, the Brahman is not bound by these changes, since Brahman is devoid of mind, desire, thoughts etc. When there is only one thing existing, there cannot be any changes. Therefore, Brahman is the ever powerful, ever present and everywhere spread Existence principle.
A thing can appear in two ways. First, it may be due to the changes in the object from which this thing has been created - for instance Clay Pot, which is made from the clay mixed with water and shaped like a pot (change). Second, seeing a thing in a different way - imagining snake in rope. As we are not able to recognise the rope due to dim light, we imagine it as snake, because the shape of the rope at that time was twisted like a snake. Now as the Brahman is beyond any change and has to create the world subjected to changes, Brahman cannot be a thing subjected to changes. Therefore, the second explanation applies here. Due to ignorance of the Reality - Brahman - we see it as the ever changing world. This ignorance is called Maaya. This Maaya, being the power of Brahman, projects the world subjected to changes, from the unchanging Brahman. The nature of Maaya is to make possible what is not possible. However, though Maaya is part of Brahman, there is no change in Brahman while the world, projected out of Brahman, goes through changes. Once the world is created, the Brahman related with Maaya is called Easwara (Saguna Brahman). As the world is created by Easwara with the help of Maaya, Easwara is called the Purusha and this Maaya Sakthi becomes his consort. Our Sastraas, for convenience of worship, points out various Gods with their related consorts for various purposes, like Siva-Parvathy, Vishnu-Lakshmi etc. This principle behind this God with Goddess is the principle of Maaya. For creation one Purusha and one Sakthi are essential. Hence this Maaya is said to be the female part of Brahman, while Brahman is considered as the Purusha.
When the Aatma associates with various bodies and Kosaas, It comes to be known as Jeeva. In fact, there is no difference between the Jeeva and Easwara. Easwara controls Maaya but Jeeva surrenders to Maaya. This is the only difference. Jeeva functions with three Gunaas - Satwa, Rajas, Thamas - which are the qualities of Maaya. The nature of Rajo Guna is Action. This is causing the Shrushti (creation) in the world. The changes known as like-dislike, happiness-sorrow etc. (Dwandhwaas) are also stemming out of this Rajo Guna. The six gunaas – Kama, Krodha, Lobha, Moha, Madha, and Maatsarya - are also coming out of Rajo Guna. This Rajo Guna is also causing the Jeeva to act in the world outside and this Guna is the cause of bondage. The AavaraNa Sakthi, known as Avruthi, is the cause of life cycle. This is the quality of Tamo Guna. The nature of this Guna is that it will project a thing as a different one. Even an intelligent, clever & sharp in intellectual assimilation, will lose his ability to understand the reality of a situation when he is under the influence of Tamo Guna. Such a personality will consider unreal things as real and get attached to them, due to this delusion. The one who is influenced by this AavaraNa Sakthi will doubt the truth declared by others, wrong identification of things etc. , which are the qualities of Tamo Guna. Forgetfulness, Laziness, sleepy, ignorance, incapacitated, foolishness etc. are the qualities of Tamo Guna.
Satwa Guna is pure like distilled water. The Aatma Sakthi projects the inert objects clearly like Sun rays. Still, when it is mixed with Rajas and Thamas, it becomes the cause of bondage. This Satwa Guna, with the connection of Rajo Guna and Thamo Guna, has the qualities of Yamam, Niyamam, Egolessness, Shraddha, Bhakthi, love towards God etc. However, when the Satwa Guna shines without the relationship of Raja and Thamas, its nature will be Shanthi, Pure Mind, Happy, Contentment, Aatma Saakshatkaram (Union with Aatma) and the resultant Blissful state of Mind.
Thus, the Maaya is being explained by the three Gunaas and it is called Thrigunaathmika, which is also called Brahmaashrayam
Every creation has two causes - Nimitha KaaraNam and Upadhaana KaaraNam. The potter, making the Clay pot, is in the knowledge of the work and ability to perform the work correctly. Therefore, he is the Nimitha KaaraNam. The clay used for making the pot is the Upadhaana KaaraNam. Easwara creates the world with the help of Maaya. There is no useless thing in the world. All things have to get bound by the natural law. Jeeva also has to function in co-ordination with the natural law but he falsely thinks he has won the nature. This is wrong. When creating this world, Easwara should have used some material and what is that? What is the Nimitha KaaraNam and which is the Upadhaana KaaraNam? Vedas proclaim that everything comes out of Easwara. This can be explained by a simile.
When the spider creates a cobweb (net) around itself, it never brings anything from outside. It uses its own saliva to make the net. Thus, it has the knowledge of making the cobweb and the ability to make the cobweb and, therefore, the spider is the Nimitha KaaraNa. The material with which the cobweb is made is coming from the spider itself and, therefore, the Upadhaana KaaraNam is also the Spider. Another example is Jeeva himself. When the Jeeva is in Dream State, he creates out of his own memories; all the things in the dream and these things are coming out of his Mind. The Jeeva is the dreamer and all the things in dream are created out of him (and nothing comes from outside of himself). Thus, the Jeeva, being the Dream things and Dreamer, is the Nimitha and Upadhaana KaaraNam. Similarly, the entire world and all the things in it are manifestations of the Brahman and these manifestations are mistaken by us as real and different from Brahman. Just as the water in the sea and the waves and ripples in the sea. The waves and ripples in the see are coming out of the water and they are not independent. They are only different projections of the water and they merge with water finally. Thus, there is no difference between the water and its above different projections. Similarly, Brahman is the Nimitha KaaraNam and Upadhaana KaaraNam as well, because the cause and effect are in Brahman.
6.3.1. The Evolution of Pancha Bhootaas:
Thatha: Aakaasa: SamBhootha:
From That, Aakaasa (the Space) came up. That here refers to Maaya. But this space is generated through a long process. First from Maaya, ignorance came, from which Ahankaara (Ego) rose - i.e. AavaraNa Vikshepa Sakthi - from that Thanmaathra - a thing which is the cause of Bhootaas which form Sthoola Sareera - and this Thanmaathras are five in number - being one for each Bhootha - then two more added, totaling to seven Thanmaathras from which Aakaasa (Space) came out. The order of distribution of these Thanmaathras to the Bhootaas is:
Aakaasaath Vaayu: From the Space Vaayu (air) arose.
Vaayostheja: From Air, Fire came out.
Thaijasa Aapa: From Fire came Water
Adbhya: PruThivee : From Water arose Earth.
Space, Air, Fire, Water and Earth are together known as Pancha Mahaa Bhoothas. The order of subtlety amongst these is: Water is subtler than Earth, Fire is subtler than Water, Air is more subtler than Fire and Space is most subtler than Air. The world arose from these five Pancha Mahaa Bhootaas and everything in the world also is formed with these Pancha Mahaa Bhootaas. Name, form and all other Sookshma Sareeraas are all formed by these only. These come from Maaya. Even the Gnaanendriyaas and sense objects are formed by Pancha Mahaa Bhootaas. These Gnaanendriyaas - Skin, Tongue, Eye, Nose, and Ear - get associated with the outer world through touch, taste, figure, smell and sound. These functions can be compared with Tungston filament Lamp, which glows with the help of electricity. Electricity is subtler than the filament and this filament is composed of Molecules - atoms - which in turn are made up of electrons and protons. Electron is the power. Thus, the subtler power of these gross filaments enable the bulb to glow. Similarly the subtler Thanmaathras in conjunction with the gross organs of our body give us the experience (knowledge) about the sense objects.
Sound is the only quality of Space. From the space we hear the sound but cannot feel, see, smell or taste.
Sound and touch are the qualities of Air. From air we hear the sound and when it touches our body we can also feel but we cannot taste, see, or smell that.
Sound, touch and figure are the qualities of Fire. We can see the Fire, can feel its heat &we can hear its sound. But we cannot taste or smell it. Dimension-wise this is the first thing we can see out of the Pancha Mahaa Bhootaas. Hence we consider this as the nearest thing to Easwara and use this for our worship.
Sound, touch, figure and taste are related to Water. We can see the water, and the sound created by its waves is heard by us, we can also feel water. There is no taste but water is the base for all tastes and this we come to know by drinking water. But it cannot be smelt.
Sound, touch, figure, taste and smell are the properties of Earth. Gross things are being made from Earth. We can see, hear, feel, smell and taste Earth.
Commentary by Sri P.K. Venkatachalam (firstname.lastname@example.org)